A bomber used as a flying ack defence at an airfield. Its use is
frowned upon by serious WarBirders pilots.
An offensive or defensive maneuver which is designed to convert
potential energy into kinetic energy either for offensive or
defensive maneuvering. A low Yo-Yo is an acceleration maneuver
designed to decrease the separation between an aggressor and his
target. A Split-S is an acceleration maneuver designed to increase
the separation between a defensive fighter and the aggressor.
Air Combat Maneuvering. Any series of individual maneuvers
designed to gain a tactical advantage or escape an untenable
When an aircraft applies aileron at high angles of attack, there
will be a tendency to yaw away from the applied direction
initially until the aerodynamic forces overcome inertia. This
effect is known as Adverse Yaw.
Away from keyboard
Picture three perpendicular lines joining in the exact center of
the aircraft, the balance point if you will. The line which
extends along the fuselage from nose to tail is the longitudinal
axis. Rotation around this axis is expressed as roll or bank. How
quickly an aircraft can achieve a given degree of roll or bank is
known as the roll rate. The second axis extends through the center
of the aircraft parallel to the wings. Rotation around this axis
is known as pitch. When you pull back on the stick to raise the
nose of the aircraft, for example, you are "pitching
up." The final axis extends straight up and down through the
aerodynamic center of the aircraft. Rotation around this axis
draws the aircraft's nose to the left or right of the direction of
travel. This is known as Yaw.
The angle between the longitudinal axis of your aircraft extended
along the fuselage in the direction of travel and the axis of the
defender's 6 o'clock position. This angle, which is also called
track crossing angle, helps you to determine the proper deflection
of a gunnery tracking solution.
Angle of Attack (AOA)
The Angle of the wing relative to the forward flight path of the
airplane. If you exceed the AOA limitations of the wing design,
the aircraft will stall. Stalling involves the interruption of the
production of lift, not necessarily stopping the forward momentum
of the aircraft.
Gaining angles is the attempt to set up a gunnery solution based
on the turn performance of an aircraft. Energy fighters with good
roll rate can also use this to obtain the angle for a gunnery
attack, but the emphasis of this term is based gaining as close to
the classic stern attack position as possible.
Seen from the map view while in the tower, this is the effect
achieved by radar blips between opposing airfields. The Regia
Aeronautica try not to form an ant trail during a protracted
attack as arrival in ones and twos is easier to defend against
rather than a concentrated force.
When your nose is pointed at the bogey, the aspect angle of the
target is the reciprocal of the angle off as measured from your
aircraft. For example, if your angle off is 30 degrees, his aspect
angle is 210 degrees. All angles are measured relative to the nose
of the objective aircraft. Angle off is measured from the nose of
the aggressor. Aspect angle is measured from the nose of the
It was the salute used during the Roman Empire. It was also used,
meaning respect, by italian pilots during the WWII.
Moving away after making an attack when in fighter. Bombs released
signal when in bomber.
Bomb Damage Assessment. Summary of the effectiveness of a Strike
mission in damaging or destroying the objective area based on
visual observation or photo-reconnaissance.
A light on each planes dash. A green light indicates a good
internet connection to FreeHost. A yellow or orange indicates an
intermittent connect which may result in warping. A red
beacon indicates you have lost contact with the FreeHost server.
Contact may re-establish but also may result in a disco or
disconnection from the server with the FreeHost program quitting.
Basic fighter maneuvers. These are the building block maneuvers
which comprise ACM, from barrel rolls and Chandelle turns to the
classic Split-S. Think of BFM as textbook maneuvers. Learning
about them gives pilots an appreciation for position and energy
transference in a tactical environment, but most ACM engagements
do not play out as cleanly as a series of BFMs would imply.
Nevertheless, they are a good foundation for further tactical
Any aerial contact which has been positively identified as hostile.
To complete a barrel roll, simply push your stick fully to one
side or the other while applying forward or aft pressure & a
little oppisite rudder. You will corkscrew in the applied
direction, clockwise or counter-clockwise, generally losing some
altitude as you do so. The most common tactical application of a
barrel roll is to avoid overshooting a jinking target while
attempting to gain angle on it for a subsequent gunnery solution.
Don't hold the maneuver too long however or you will bleed off too
much energy and increase your nose to tail separation, thereby
affording the enemy an escape or reversal opportunity.
Any aerial contact which remains unidentified as friendly or
To attack another aircraft with the element of Surprise. During
WWII, it is estimated that 80% or more of confirmed air victories
resulted from a successful bounce.
BNZ or B&Z
Boom and zoom. The characteristic attack method by which a fighter
with poor turning ability but good high speed qualities uses to
attack enemy aircraft. Charictorised by a series of diving and
climbing runs on a lower enemy.
Be right back
A very basic evasive maneuver designed to maximize the deflection
of the gunnery solution of an enemy who has just bounced you.
Basically, you roll your aircraft anywhere from 45-90 degrees
toward the aggressor (if he is on dead six, direction doesn't
matter), then pull back hard on the stick to decrease your turn
radius. The advantage of a break turn is that it can be executed
very quickly to minimize the reaction time and probability of
success of an aggressor's first pass. The disadvantage is that it
bleeds energy rapidly. Executing too many consecutive break turns
without energy gaining maneuvers between them can leave your
aircraft so depleted of residual maneuver capability as to be
virtually a sitting duck.
Big Ugly Fat F**ker. A plane that is specifically a bomber e.g.
B25. Not to be confused with a jabo.
A bomber pilot
To disengage from combat and extend for home base, either due to
fuel constraints, completion of the mission or loss of the
Click-click. Taken from the real life method of acknowledging a
message by double clicking the radio button
To execute a Chandelle Turn, roll your aircraft to between 15 and
30 degrees in either direction and pull back gently on the stick.
This is not a defensive maneuver like the break turn. It is a very
energy efficient way to gain altitude (potential energy) while
reversing direction. You can use this to follow up on a high
energy pass against a low energy target to convert for a follow up
attack, just be careful not to allow to much horizontal and
vertical separation when you do so or you might give the target an
Positional reference reporting structure relative to the nose of
the reporting aircraft in a formation. The nose is 12 o'clock, and
reports of contacts sighted in relation to that point usually also
include the altitude band they are operating in, high, medium or
Reducing the separation between a target and yourself through cut
off tactics and energy conversion.
Measures the relative speed between two aircraft. In a tail chase,
if the defender is flying at 400 mph. and the aggressor is
overtaking him at 450 mph., the closure rate would be the
difference between the two: 50 mph. If the same two contacts were
merging head to head, the closure rate would be the sum of the two
speeds, 850 mph.
See Line Abreast below.
Term used to indicate commandos.
Problem caused by the air around the plane being compressed as the
plane approaches the speed of sound. It is often encountered
during high speed and high altitude flight, typically around Mach
0.6, or 60% of the speed of sound. Once the compressibility is
encountered, the plane would start to vibrate violently, control
would be lost, and the plane would often "tuck under"
and nose down steeply into a dive.
Contact. Refers to an enemy or possible enemy aircraft.
The slowest airspeed at which the maximum allowable aircraft G and
minimum turning radius can be generated.
Defensive maneuvers which are designed to turn the tables in an
engagement and gain the offensive. Rolling Scissors, reversals and
defensive spirals are examples of counteroffensive maneuvers.
Combat Ready. A pilot lets the SC know that he will or will not be
CR for an upcoming mission so that pilot assignments can be made
When two aircraft in a Section have sufficient lateral separation,
they can turn into each other, going nose to nose, prior to
steadying on the reciprocal of their previous heading. Cross turns
are applicable when an enemy aircraft or Section has been detected
astern, but they are not in engagement range yet, and you want to
immediately convert the tactical situation to a meeting/merge
Pursuit curves and maneuvers designed to reduce the nose to tail
separation between an attacker and defender.
Range in hundreds of yards. A plane with an icon showing a 5 for
instance is d5 or 500 yards away. Where x refers to 100s of yards
Maneuvers designed to preclude an accurate gunnery solution.
Jinking and Break turns are defensive maneuvers.
A steep dive combined with a barrel roll to grossly complicate a
gun targeting solution and either force an overshoot by the
attacker if he has a higher energy advantage at the beginning of
the maneuver or gain lateral separation from the pursuer if you
begin at an equal or relatively equal energy state (to account for
the time lag of his reaction to the maneuver).
The combination of lead angle, lateral separation and relative
speed. The higher the deflection of a gun shot, the more difficult
it is to perform.
Disconnected. The beacon light will be red, all other planes will
disappear and no new radio messages will be received. A pilot may
sometimes be able to keep flying and get reconnected but it is
usually better to quit and reconnect.
Break off the current attack either to extend for home (a
permanent disengagement) or to re-position for a better tactical
advantage for subsequent re-engagement.
Refers to an unknow aircraft.
I Dont know.
A new pilot. Often used as a derogatory remark.
A tactical formation where the wingman is displaced approximately
45 degrees astern from the flight leader at a pre-determined
distance. This position is also known as trail, and it can be
established at the same altitude as the flight leader, or
displaced slightly above or below at the discretion of the Section.
A formation of two aircraft, also known as a Section.
Tactical maneuvering designed to defeat an enemy aircraft or
Section. An engagement involves both offensive and defensive
maneuvering by opposing aircraft and continues until one side is
either destroyed or disengages.
The flight parameters of an aircraft as expressed over the entire
altitude band. For example, the turning radius of a given aircraft
varies based on speed, but it also varies based on altitude due to
differences in atmospheric pressure. Although this data can be
displayed graphically, good pilots understand the flight
performance envelope of their aircraft as readily as they do their
own names, and the best one's continually push the envelopes of
their airframe to gain tactical advantage.
To use an acceleration maneuver to increase the separation between
your aircraft and any pursuing aircraft. Extensions are used to
disengage, even if only temporarily. Also after a bomber has made
a bomb-run over the target, the bomber may extend for a distance
before returning for another bomb-run.
F2, F3, etc
Airfield identification as shown on the arena map accessed by
pressing the keyboards F1 key.
Term used to indicate a V1 rocket.
Slang term for when a pilot is spoiling for a fight. Sometimes it
also includes "with his hair on fire." Aggression is a
good trait, but most pilots are wary of those who fly with "fangs
out" because they tend to forget their other responsibilities
to the Section or Flight.
A formation involving four aircraft, two Sections of two aircraft.
Slang for an engagement involving many aircraft performing angles
combat in a small piece of the sky.
A measure of the multiples of gravity a pilot and airframe is
subjected to when maneuvering. One-G equals normal gravity. A
three G turn would exert three times the normal force of gravity
on the fighter. These would be positive G's and each aircraft has
a maximum limit it can withstand before structural damage occurs.
Well before that, however, a pilot can black out because the
centrifugal force causes their blood to flow toward their feet.
When you pull negative g's, such as in an outside loop, blood
rushes to your head and you can suffer red out.
A method used by experienced bomber pilots to return to the target
in a shorter time than is usually possible rather than by waiting
for the norden sight to become green of its own accord.
Head to head. A feature in Warbirds allowing two pilots to connect
via the internet and fly in the same arena with no other aircraft
present. H2H is not charged for by iMagic so is free apart from
your usual internet connection fees.
Using back pressure on the stick to increase your turn rate and
pull more g's in the process.
To complete this maneuver, stay wings level and pull back on the
stick to pitch your nose up slightly. After a few seconds, push
forward on the stick so your plane pitches back nose down to
complete the parabolic arc. High Yo-Yo's can be used offensively
when you want to slow the closure rate between you and a target in
your forward hemisphere (assuming a nose to tail aspect) and
counter-offensively to quickly convert on a bandit attacking
astern with high closure rate. You will likely only get a snapshot
out of the latter maneuver before he moves out of range, but it
also gives you a chance to subsequently reverse and extend.
Heavy. Indicates that a fighter plane is loaded with bombs and/or
The letters/numbers seen above all planes. An icon is the colour
of that pilot's country. An enemy's icon shows the plane type and
its range in hundreds of yards eg. d5=500yds. Friendly planes show
the pilot's name and his range. Pressing the F2 key will cycle
through various icon settings.
A free program obtainable from http://www.mirabilis.com that has
several features. One of its uses is to establish a realtime text
chat session with many pilots.
Imol & Ien
iMagicOnline & iEntertainment Network. The owners of Warbirds.
Turn To complete an Immelmann Turn, keep your wings level pull
back on your stick sharply to enter into a vertical loop. At the
top of the loop, roll from an inverted position to wings level.
You are now on the reciprocal of your previous heading at a higher
altitude. This is best used as an offensive maneuver to gain
energy state and position prior to an attack run. An alternative
to the basic Immelmann is the oblique variant of the same maneuver.
Instead of staying wings level at the beginning of the vertical
portion, roll from 15-30 degrees then pull back on the stick. This
is like a Chandelle turn in the first half of the maneuver but
instead of following through the turn, you will again roll out on
top to retain the altitude gained. Oblique Immelmanns are useful
when you want to increase or decrease the horizontal separation
between your aircraft and the target prior to subsequent
Commencing an attack
German term that basically means a fighter loaded with bombs
A series of quick aileron, rudder and stick movements in an
unpredictable manner designed to complicate a tracking gunnery
solution by an opponent in firing position astern.
A pursuit curve designed to cause the attacker to fly behind the
target into gunnery range at low or relatively low closure rate.
If your nose is kept pointed at a spot that intersects his
longitudinal axis somewhere behind his aircraft, you are in a lag
pursuit. By contrast, a pure pursuit curve would be one in which
you continually point the nose of your aircraft directly at his
aircraft, regardless of aspect.
A pursuit curve where the nose of your aircraft is continually
pointed ahead of the enemy in his direction of travel. Lead
pursuit curves are adopted to maximize the rate of closure on a
hard maneuvering bandit to obtain the angle for a gunnery solution.
They are also known as cut off tactics. You would not maintain a
lead pursuit curve to its ultimate conclusion because if you did,
you would actually end up in front of the bandit. Instead, when
you achieve gunnery range, you roll your aircraft in behind the
enemy in a saddle trail to take the shot.
A tactical formation for a Section or Flight where the aircraft
are aligned side by side, instead of at an angle like in Echelon,
at a pre-determined separation. Two aircraft in a Line Abreast at
a separation of one turn radius is also known as a Combat Spread.
A tactical formation for a Section or Flight where the aircraft
are aligned nose to tail in the same axis at a predetermined
horizontal separation. This is also known as being in "Trail."
As it sounds, this is the bearing of the target relative to your
aircraft from your perspective.
Refers to wing loading. Increasing the angle of attack (AOA)
increases the number of G's exerted on the airframe. Decreasing
the AOA "unloads" the number of G's.
Location. "My loc 1,2,5". Loc xxxxxx? is a request for
Laughing Out Loud. Its often used meaning a big laugh.
See Axis above.
Generally a maneuver better exhibited at air shows than in combat,
the loop involves pulling back on the stick while wings level and
holding it throughout an entire 360 degrees of travel, such that
you end up traveling on the same course as before. The energy
transference during the maneuver isn't one for one, so you
generally come out of a loop at a slightly lower altitude than
where you started the maneuver.
Losing the Bubble
Slang for overloaded situational awareness. When pilots get caught
up in a furball, for example, it is impossible for them to keep
track of all the tactical factors simultaneously. This is called
losing the bubble and the only way to compensate for this reduced
SA is to narrow your focus to the nearest threats until you can
extricate yourself from the situation.
This is the reverse of the High Yo-Yo (see above). Instead of
pitching back first, you pitch forward first then back. The Low
Yo-Yo is an offensive maneuver designed to close the lateral
separation between an aggressor and his target.
Any engagement which has stagnated into a pure angles duel with
neither fighter having a tactical advantage. When you are
assessing threat priorities, Lufberries can be discounted. Also,
if you are disengaged, enemy fighters caught in a Lufberry are
prime targets because most of their maneuvering energy has already
An aircraft at rest is not maneuverable. Therefore,
maneuverability is a factor both of the performance
characteristics of the aircraft and its energy state, both speed
and altitude. Remember, maneuvering characteristics change with
altitude (See also Envelope).
When two opposing aircraft complete a meeting engagement in the
forward hemisphere. This may or may not be in a classic head to
Coordination and cooperation between two or more aircraft or
Sections to enhance both offensive and defensive capabilities.
The bombaimers sight in bombers. For accurate bombing, the
norden must be showing a green light achieved by the pilot
being in the bombaimers position on a steady flightpath
allowing the nordens gyros to settle.
Maneuvers, either energy or angle dependent, designed to achieve a
gunnery opportunity against a target.
Term used to describe the automatic gunners available in some
On the runway. Signifies readiness to takeoff.
On the way. Im going to
A condition where the attacker fails to curtail his closure rate
before completing a gunnery solution on the intended victim and
flies out of the engagement zone. In the worst case scenario, the
attacker's momentum carries them into the defender's engagement
zone and the roles are reversed.
The closest point of approach between two opposing fighters. After
range begins opening between the two, a "pass" has been
completed. Many pilots also think in terms of an opportunity for a
gun solution. A missed guns opportunity is also a missed pass.
Our Squad motto. Ask to our finnish comrades to know wich this
term exactly mean.
Used in a pilot's last radio message before quitting Warbirds to
let others know he has left the arena.
Flying in and out of clouds to track an enemy formation while
minimizing your own chance of counter-detection to hopefully
maintain the element of Surprise for a subsequent attack. This is
also known as "Porpoising."
Slang for the defensive spiral maneuver. He was "digging a
The group of aircraft to which fighter escort is being provided.
These forces are mission critical and defending them is your
Keeping your nose pointed at the objective aircraft while turning
to close your range to that aircraft (See also Lag Pursuit and
How rapidly an aircraft can change course. Rate of Turn is
measured in degrees per second.
Inverting the roll of your aircraft 180 degrees suddenly to change
the direction of your turn. This is a counter-offensive rolling
maneuver generally designed to gain angle on a aggressor that has
overshot, but it can also be used in Section tactics like
Bracketing and Half Splits.
Roger. Acknowledgement of message received
Simply applying a right or left pressure to the stick without
moving the stick forward or back. The plane will roll around its
central axis not changing corse in any direction.
A series of vertical rolling maneuvers which usually result from a
high speed overshoot where the defender tries to go vertical as
well. Each aircraft is rolling in the vertical plane to try and
gain a stern attack position. Generally, the fighter which bleeds
off energy the fastest is the most vulnerable in this situation,
either when he hits the apex of the climb if he is in front, or
when the higher energy fighter turns and descends on him if he is
See Section below.
Rolling Plane Set. A method by which planes become available for
use in an historically correct chronological order during a three
week Tour of Duty.
Roger Wilco; free communication software.
The common abbreviation for Situational Awareness. Piloting an
aircraft can be task intensive, even when you are not in combat.
Good SA skills means that a pilot keeps track of all the
instrumentation he needs to monitor, always knows his position
relative to friendly and enemy aircraft, and is thinking
tactically to gain a position of advantage.
Slang for getting caught between a target and his wingman, or
other enemy aircraft such that you are simultaneously in an
offensive and defensive maneuvering condition.
A series of reversals designed to cause an attacking aircraft to
overshoot and become the defender. The better turning aircraft
usually wins the flat scissors (See also Rolling Scissors).
Two aircraft operating in mutual support as a tactical unit.
Multiple aircraft attacking the same target in succession. A
Section engaging enemy bombers would be likely to use a Sequential
attack to increase their chances of severely damaging or downing
the targeted bomber on one pass.
If you dip a wing then apply opposite rudder, your aircraft will
skid and pivot around the lowered wing. You use a skid at the top
of a Wing Over maneuver (see below) but you can also use one to
complicate an enemy's gun tracking solution.
An oblique Split-S is also known as a Slice.
A high deflection gunshot (see above) with a low probability of
success. Snapshots are tactically important, even if they don't
find their mark, because often they will have psychological impact
on the one being shot at, making them a little less aggressive
An organised mission available for all Warbirds pilots to
participate in. Takes place in the Special Events Arena and is
based on an actual WWII event. Planes available are limited to
those that were actually present and other arena settings may also
A Split-S is exactly the inverse of an Immelmann. You begin by
rolling inverted then pull back on the stick. At the completion of
the maneuver, you will be heading in the opposite direction at a
much higher rate of speed and at an lower altitude. The Split-S
was the classic escape maneuver for Bf-109's that had been bounced
by a Spitfire because the latter could not fly inverted because it
did not have a fuel injected carburetor.
Two or more aircraft or Sections operating in mutual support but
Turn and burn. The characteristic attack method by which a fighter
with good low speed and turning ability but poor high speed
qualities uses to attack enemy aircraft.
Tour of Duty. Stats are kept of the pilot for each three week TOD.
At the end of the TOD all stats are reset. Countries are also
rearranged on the map.
Tracking (Guns Tracking
A very low deflection gunshot from a classic attack position
astern of the target with minimal relative motion.
See also Line Astern. The aircraft farthest back in a formation is
known as the "Trailer."
See Axis above.
A formation for three aircraft which originated in the First World
War. There is a lead aircraft followed by two trailers in
triangular formation. The Luftwaffe only used the Vic during the
Spanish war, although the British continued to employ it early in
WWII as well until the pre-dominance of Section and Flight tactics
Confirm have visual on a particular target, area or plane.
The same of CC.
If a pilot has a poor internet connection, data sent or received
can be sporadic. When data is missing, position updates of planes
can only be approximated by the Warbirds server. When data resumes,
the server has to warp the plane to its correct position. If
a pilot sees all planes warping and he does not have a green
beacon he can assume he has a bad connection. If however he has a
green beacon and only some planes are warping, then it is probably
they that have the bad connection.
When members of a formation cross each other's flight paths in a
regular pattern. An offensive example of this tactic is the Thatch
An emergency power boost taking engine to 110% for a limited
amount of time. Not available on all planes and of different
duration on those that do have it. Activated by pressing
The second pilot in a Section, usually but not always the junior
man of the two pilots. The Wingman has primary responsibility as
defensive lookout for the Section, freeing the Section Leader to
concentrate on offensive responsibilities. If subsequent tactical
maneuvers place the Wingman in better position to prosecute an
attack, the Leader temporarily assumes the duties of wingman for
that pilot until the attack is over or the formation disengages.
A Wing Over is performed by applying rudder at the top of a climb
to kick the tail of the aircraft around the yaw axis and reverse
direction back into a dive. To be done correctly, the aircraft
should be at or near stall speed when you begin the turn. Do not
do a Wing Over with an attacker in close quarters climbing after
you as it makes you an easy shot. The most common tactical
application of this maneuver is to set up a follow up pass after a
prior diving attack. Wing Over's are energy-based maneuvers.
Where are you?
Way to go. Usually sent to a pilot when he gets a kill or sent
over the country channel when an enemy field is captured.